人為的活動有時不只破壞了陸地上生態系的平衡，也影響了海洋中的生物。最近，由埃克塞特大學（University of Exeter）研究海洋的科學家發現來自遊艇（Motor-boat）發動時的噪音會影響珊瑚礁魚（coral reef fish）的行為模式，使公魚不再保護或餵養後代的行為產生。
Dr Steve Simpson, an expert of the impact
of noise on marine life at the University of Exeter.
"This study raises important
implications for managing the noise of the 100,000s of motorboats used around
the world in coral reef environments. We are now considering acoustic quiet
zones and corridors, and exploring how engine and propeller development can
reduce the impact of this globally prevalent pollutant."
The University of Exeter researchers
predicted that their field research into the effect of human-made noise on
coral fish could have wider implications for the survival of other marine
species, and even birds and mammals. They called for more research in these
Dr Sophie Nedelec, of the College of Life
and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter, said she believed other
species could be similarly affected by marine noise pollution.
"Parental care is widespread in the
animal kingdom; from blue tits to blue whales, so there could be big
implications for populations of animals affected by noise," she said.
Noise from boats and has already been shown
to affect the way fish, mammals, birds and invertebrates behave. It can force
them to change their habitat to get away from the noise and reduce their
success finding a mate. Boat noise can travel for many kilometres underwater.
This new research, carried out by the
University of Exeter, University of Bristol, James Cook University, Queensland,
Australia, and the Australian Institute of Marine Science, showed motorboat
noise can increase death rates among juvenile fish.
Dr Nedelec, lead author on the paper
published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B journal, added:
"Parental care behaviour seems to be
impaired in noisy conditions and we believe this makes it easier for predators
to strike their offspring. It is likely the parents were either stressed or
distracted by the noise, giving an advantage to the predators in this
The researchers made observations for 12
days of 38 natural nests with broods of young in the Great Barrier Reef in
Australia. It found that exposure to recordings of noise from motorboats,
compared to ambient sounds, had a noticeable impact on the survival of baby
coral reef fish, and the behaviour of adult male fish.
Motorboat noise is the most common source
of human-made noise in shallow reef environments. The University of Exeter
scientists warned that because they broadcast the motorboat engine noise
through underwater loudspeakers which do not broadcast the full range of sounds
produced by motorboats their results could be conservative.
The males and female spiny chromis, a coral
reef fish which lives in the tropical Western Pacific, bring up their offspring
together, with males contributing more care than females of the species.
Fish exposed to the motorboat noise spent
far more time chasing and making aggressive strikes at other fish, compared to
males exposed to recordings of ambient sound. The scientists believe this increase
in aggressive behaviour may have been be due to 'heightened stress', or
distraction by the noise which led to decision-making errors, so the fish
attacked or chased fish that were not a predatory threat.
The greater time spent "chasing
inappropriate species at inappropriate times" also meant father fish spent
less time near the nest, which may have left their offspring vulnerable to
attacks from predators.
Adult fish exposed to the motorboat noise
also spent less time feeding, which would have been likely to reduce their
Another coral reef fish, the longear
sunfish, was observed to move away from their nest when a slow-moving motorboat
was nearby. Predators that have located a nest they can feed from are likely to
return to hunt.
Other studies have shown that spawning
could be interrupted by the approach of a fast moving powerboat.
Professor Andy Radford, University of
Bristol, said: "Experiments that measure survival in natural conditions --
as we have done in this study -- are crucial if we are to understand fully the
impact of anthropogenic noise."
The research is published on June 7th in
Proceedings of the Royal Society B Journal.
原文連結：University of Exeter. "Motor-boat noise makes fish bad parents, leading to the
death of their babies. " ScienceDaily, 6June, 2017.
Nedelec et al., Motorboat noise
impacts parental behaviour and offspring survival in a reef fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences, 2017. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0143